Modeling Paris with InfraWorks

It has been a while since I wanted to play with InfraWorks, but I never had the chance, nor any purpose until recently, when I start to ponder on retrieving existing conditions to integrate future buildings in existing conditions, without having to rely on time-consuming on-site surveys.

When starting with InfraWorks, the easiest way to create a model is to use the Model Builder. This feature use data from OpenStreetMap and Microsoft Bing Maps to create fully featured models, with terrain, roads, orthophoto, and so on.

The Model Builder interface

The Model Builder interface

Using this Model Builder, I quickly create a complete 3D model of Paris.

The initial model created from OpenStreetMap

The initial model created from OpenStreetMap

However, this model is not accurate enough for any practical application. For example, the 10-stories building where I live is modeled as a 2 levels building. My idea was to use these buildings for site integration and lighting solar studies, but building heights provided by OpenStreetMap is not reliable enough, I had to find another data source.

I am quite envious of the data used to build Google Maps, which can provide us a 3D model of every building, based on 45-degree aerial imagery. But these data are obviously not easily available, and I fall back on open data.

APUR, the Paris Urban Planning Agency provide an Open Data platform with a lot of datasets about Paris and its suburbs.

Their “EMPRISE BATIE PARIS” dataset contains every building in Paris in Shapefile format. Importing it in InfraWorks is quite easy, but this dataset must be configured to map its values with InfraWorks features.

To do so, it is necessary to map the information contained in the dataset to the property of building objects in InfraWorks.

Configuring the dataset

Configuring the dataset

Some properties, like Roof Height, can be easily filled with data coming from the APUR dataset. However, this dataset is far richer than that, and I wanted some specific information, like construction date, to be imported in InfraWorks as custom properties.

To create these custom fields, I have to edit the “im.schema.json” file located in “%USERPROFILE%\Documents\Autodesk InfraWorks Models\Autodesk 360\modelNumber\modelName.files\unver. Using the indications found here, I edit this JSON file to create five custom fields for the “Building” class in InfraWorks: Construction Date, Refurbishment Date, IHG (Hight-Rise Building), Roof Height Standard Deviation and Roof Type. These fields are then mapped to the corresponding values found in the APUR dataset, using the Table tab in “Data Source Configuration”.

Mapping custom fileds

Mapping custom fields

Since my data contains the type of roofing material of the building, I create a rule to match the appearance of the building with my dataset. These Roof Type values are integers defining a roofing material for every building.

Using great explanations from here, I create a small script to map these values to a roofing material in InfraWorks, with a switch command on the type of roof described in the dataset.

//Added by me

switch (SOURCE["C_TOITDOM"])
{
case 0: BUILDINGS.ROOF_MATERIAL = "Material/Roofing/Spanish Tile Brown";
break;
case 1: BUILDINGS.ROOF_MATERIAL = "Material/Roofing/Spanish Tile Brown";
break;
case 2: BUILDINGS.ROOF_MATERIAL = "Material/Roofing/Zinc";
break;
case 3: BUILDINGS.ROOF_MATERIAL = "Material/Roofing/Slate Grey";
break;
case 4: BUILDINGS.ROOF_MATERIAL = "Material/Roofing/Masonry Stone Black";
break;
case 5: BUILDINGS.ROOF_MATERIAL = "Material/Roofing/Grass Augustine";
break;
default: BUILDINGS.ROOF_MATERIAL = "Material/Roofing/Spanish Tile Brown";
}

 

Most of Paris buildings have a very characteristic zinc roof, a material that is not available by default in InfraWorks.

Typical Parisian roofs

Typical Parisian roofs

Using the style palette, I create my own zinc material from a picture and a few settings.

Creating a custom "Zinc" material

Creating a custom “Zinc” material

My final experiment was to use the Feature Themes tab to display construction dates for Parisian buildings.

This function allows me to add a color scheme to my buildings to display values, here the construction date.

FeatureThemes

The result in quite compelling, every building is displayed in color per its construction date.

Displaying construction dates

Displaying construction dates

Building models of entire cities is incredibly easy with InfraWorks, and as long as you have correct data sources, it seems to be the perfect tool to re-create the environment for your studies.

Linking documents to a model

These days, there is a lot of ideas around using a building information model for facilities management. Among these ideas, a recurring theme is to integrate documents, mostly technical sheets, directly into the model.

Aside from the fact that I don’t see how a model build to design, analyse, and coordinate a building could be use directly in facilities management, there is also some non-trivial technical problems to overcome to have any documents properly linked to your model, whether you are using Revit, Navisworks, or an IFC viewer.
Below is a list of these technical problems, and some though on how to solve them.

Adding a link in Revit

Adding a link in Revit is fairly straightforward, you just have to use a “URL” parameter (shared or built in), and type in your link. Since a technical sheet is generally the same for every building element of a given type, it makes more sense to me to add it in a type parameter.

Door Type URL parameter

Door Type URL parameter

As you can see, I type in a relative path to my technical documentation, this allows me to move around the entire “As-built documentation” folder (models and technical sheets in PDF) without breaking the links. I end up with a pretty simple folder structure, with a model at its root, and the technical sheets nicely ordered in one folder per category.

The folder structure

The folder structure

If you click on the small “…” button in Revit, your linked technical document will immediately open in the associate viewer, here, Acrobat Reader.

How to open the linked technical sheet

How to open the linked technical sheet

Adding a link without Revit

Selecting equipment and material is generally done through spreadsheets or building economy software, and by people who could not be proficient with Revit. Therefore, I have searched for solution to do it outside Revit.
The new Flux Scheduler is an application based on Flux, which allows us to create online schedules from data uploaded through the Revit Flux plugin.

The Flux Scheduler

The Flux Scheduler

By using this Flux Scheduler, I could upload my doors on Flux, create a door schedule directly on Flux, use Excel to add the URL link, and upload back these values in Revit

Type the URL in Excel before uploading them in Revit

Type the URL in Excel before uploading them in Revit

Delivering a Navisworks model

Once exported to Navisworks, the “Link” button will display a small link button on every linked object, which open the linked technical sheet.

The link in Navisworks

The link in Navisworks

However, you must keep your Navisworks model in the same location in your “As-Build Documentation” folder structure as your initial Revit model to keep the relative links functional. In our case, we end up with the following folder structure:

The folder structure with a Navisworks model

The folder structure with a Navisworks model

Delivering an IFC model

If you export this Revit model to IFC, and open it in Solibri Model Viewer, you can display the link, but not click on it. However, by writing a “\” before the link in Revit, Solibri Model Viewer recognize it as link and you can open the technical sheet with a click. This could obviously become problematic in Revit, since when you add this “\”, Revit doesn’t recognize the link anymore.

The clickable link in Solibri

The clickable link in Solibri

Tekla BIMSight, on the other hand, couldn’t recognized any of those links as a clickable item.

As you can see, they are many ways to link documents to a model and retrieve them in a viewer, and a few things could go wrong along the way. So, before starting anything, I would recommend to make sure you can link or embedded documents in your deliverables and structure these deliverables accordingly.

Why I am now a bimsync fanboy

Those of you who know me know that I recently changed my employer and I am know working for a real estate developer, with a different scope of work than in my previous position. This lead me to put aside Revit and Dynamo for a while, and think more about a project-wide collaboration platform.

Alongside with the ubiquitous BIM 360 platform from Autodesk, there is a lot of more confidential solutions from various developers. Every large BIM editor has its own, and many other companies propose one. Among them, bimsync is a rather discrete application from Catenda, a Norwegian company. Having eared about it at the French Revit User Group, I had to give it a test, and I was not disappointed.

What immediately caught my attention is the web viewer, which is the best I have ever tried. They develop their own IFC web-based viewer, and it is not far from perfect. The viewer is extremely easy to use with the left mouse button and the wheel, and include every needed feature. Sectioning the model is also quite well implemented and do a very good job. My only wish here is to have a filled pattern to highlight the difference between fill and void while sectioning.

sectionnningwithdiff

The viewer is also quite powerful, I tried it with 1 Go worth of IFC files, it run “almost” smoothly on my iPad.

onipad2

bimsync does a good job at uploading, viewing and managing versions of various models, and provides a thoughtful way of managing revisions.

You start by creating a “model” which on bimsync is a placeholder where you will upload the various versions of an IFC file. Once this file is processed by the platform, it will be available for review along with the other models. The processing part can be rather slow, it takes more than one hour for a 500 Mo IFC file, but happen entirely online, you don’t even have to keep your computer open.

models

A key feature of bimsync is the ability to easily extract Excel schedules from the uploaded models. Having the ability to show data from a model in a nice spreadsheet is priceless, and this is something that is generally overlooked by their competitors.

The issue tracking solution integrated in bimsync is also very efficient and well-thought-out, with a lot of nice features.

You start by creating an issue directly on the model, can assign someone responsible for solving this issue, add a due date and write a few lines of comment.

issues

These issues are grouped by boards, and you can create as many board as you want. You can also keep track of the resolution of these issues with a few statistical tools and filters, and save reports in Excel.

statistics2

You know that I am a big fan of the BCF concept, and bimsync doesn’t disappoint me in this regard, by providing a first-class BCF 1 and 2 support. You can export your issues in BCF to display them directly in your authoring platform of choice.

Catenda was kind enough to provide me with an access to their API, and after a few tests, I found them quite easy to use and powerful. I think this enable very interesting workflows, like automatically displaying key metrics in an easy to consume Power BI dashboard.

I yet have to explore all the features, especially the libraries, but bimsync is now my top choice among the web-based BIM collaboration platforms, and I am eager to explore more workflows with it.

Group Clashes

If you have already run some clash detection, you have probably ended up with thousand of clashes, and wondering how you could find something interesting in this mess.

neuro

Furthermore, finding clashes is not really useful in itself. The purpose of clash detection is to be able to find and hopefully solve issues in the design. And we quickly realize that a clash is not an issue in itself, but can be the symptom of an issue. Being able to extract a real issue from a meaningless bunch of clashes is what we are looking for. This is how we can gain some return from clash detection.

To do so, I tend to focus on specific subjects. Instead of running useless clash detections between entire model, I rather focus on specific issues and know beforehand what I am looking for.

For example, instead of running a clash detection between an architectural and a structural model, and end up with thousand of clashes, we can run a clash detection only between architectural rooms and structural concrete beams. As we know which type of element are involved in the clash detection, we can understand what a “clash” mean. Here, it means that there is a beam below the ceiling height. Furthermore, we can also group these clashes by room, and immediately highlight the problematic area where we can focus our efforts.

clearheadroom

To help in this regards, I created a plugin for Navisworks Manage to automatically group these clashes. After a beta version published last year, I finally take the time to properly develop a full-fledged application and publish it on the Autodesk App Store. It is a fully redesigned Group Clashes Navisworks plugin, with a new interface that integrates seamlessly into the Navisworks interface.

interface

The grouping rules have also been redesigned, and now include the following methods :

  • Group by Level: This rule will group clashes according to their nearest level, and name the group after the level.

bylevels

  • Group by Grid Intersection: This rule will group clashes according to their nearest grid intersection, and name the group after these grids.

bygrids

  • Group by Selection A: This rule will group all clashes belonging to an element of the selection A, and name the group after this element. As an example, if a room in Selection A has many clashes with beams in Selection B, all these clashes will be grouped.

byselectiona

  • Group by Selection B: This rule will group all clashes belonging to an element of the selection B, and name the group after this element.

byselectionb

  • Group by Assigned To, Approved By, and Status: These three rules will use various properties of the clash to group them. As an example, you can use this rule to group all clashes assigned to you.

You can also group with two rules, the first one will rename the clash group created by the second one. This enables various possibilities, like having clashes grouped by a given selection and renamed according to the one assigned to.

Group Clashes can have difficulties in managing clash reports with more than 10 000 clashes. Be smart when you set up your clash tests, and everything will be fine.

Group Clashes is now out of beta, and you will have to pay $10 to download it on the Autodesk App Store.

Yet, Group Clashes is also open-source. You can find the entire source code on Github, build your own plugin, and develop your own grouping rules.

Flux Dashboard

Since my last article, Flux has made a lot of progress. Along with their plugins for Excel, Grasshopper and Dynamo, the Flux team has recently released their connectors for Revit and SketchUp. They are also developing a series of tools that use the Flux platform for calculations or specific collaboration tasks.

Among these tools, Thomas points me to the Live Data Dashboard, a real-time visualization tool for your Flux data.

I have tried various solution for displaying data extracted from a Revit model, from Excel spreadsheet to Tableau, but these solutions generally fell short when it comes to real-time update. The Dashboard can be a solution, since its values always reflect the latest Flux values.

After login with my Flux account into the Flux Dashboard, I was able to select a Data Key from one of my project as a data source for a bar chart.

Image

Using properties extracted from the Rooms of one of my project, I tried to display my 951 rooms all at one, and came up with a rather messy chart:

Image [1]

The problem here is that the Flux dashboard does not support values that are not in a tabular format, with mean you cannot yet use directly the value uploaded from the Revit plugin. Furthermore, the Dashboard does not process any of the data you are feeding in, so you have to prepare your visualization beforehand, in Dynamo or in the Flux Flow.

I go back to the Dynamo plugin, and use a rather simple definition to retrieve all rooms, and regroup key values in nested lists. I use the List.GroupByKey node to regroup rooms’ area per level, and create a list of levels, with the number of room and their area in each level.

List2

I upload these values in a new Flux Data Key, and use this Data Key as a source for a new, and way more interesting Chart Bar.

Image [2]

Once the values are properly sorted in Dynamo, they fit nicely on the graph, and are automatically updated as the values evolve in our Revit model.

Using the same principle, I add a few node to my Dynamo definition, and upload the resulting values to the Dashboard.

Image [3]

I also try to display geometry in the Flux Viewport, but for some reason, I wasn’t able to see anything on the dashboard. I will have to keep trying on this one.

After having built this great dashboard, it is pretty easy to share it, using a Flux Data Key to store it. You just have to make sure everyone has access to all the projects linked to the dashboard.

The Flux Dashboard is a great idea. As long as you use Flux as the main data repository, the Flux Dashboard can display is fair share of information to everyone without having to dig into the models. However, the Flux dashboard is not (yet) an Excel spreadsheet, and won’t regroup or sort your data directly, and you still have some work upfront to prepare this data for visualization.

Room Finishes Update

I keep on working on my Revit add-ins. After Align, it is now Room Finishes who have been updated to support Revit 2017. Along with this update, I also have integrated some new features.

First of all, Room Finishes now support all kind of units. You just have to type your dimension with its unit symbol, and the plugin will convert it in a floor height or a skirting board height. The plug-in will now also use the default length unit of your model.

interface

I have to thanks Brian Winterscheidt for this update, who was kind enough to contribute to my plug-in on Github, and point me to the Revit unit conversion system available in the API.

The other major update is the ability to join skirting board with their supporting wall. You can now join both geometries automatically. This enable one of the most wanted feature, the ability to cut the skirting board around the door.

Just select “Join geometry” before running the command, and every skirting board will be joined with its host wall.

join

This feature could generate its fair share of warning, so I have remove every related error message. You will now be able to run this command without having to dismiss every warning that come up.

I also add some minor UI improvements, like the ability to resize the window, or sorting wall type names by alphabetical order to be able to quickly find the specific wall type you have created for your skirting board or your floor finish.

Of course, Room Finishes is still open source, the entire code can be found on Github.

This plug-in is already available on the Autodesk App Store. If you like it, don’t hesitate to write a nice comment or add a few stars, it always means so much to me!

Align Tag Update

It is this time of the year again, and I have finally take the time to update Align on the App Store for the new version of Revit.

However, there is more in this than a simple version update, and this new release is packed with improvement, both small and large.

The main change reside in the alignment method. In the previous version of Align Tag, I was using the center point of a given tag as a reference to align tag (either left or right). To improve on the alignment of tags of various sizes, I now use the bounding box of the tag.

AlignSolution

Tags will now properly align themselves along their right or left side, regardless of their size or origin point.

Align

However, if you want something similar to the older version, you can use the new Align Center and Align Midlle commands, which will use the center of the tag as a reference.

This new alignment method is more in line with what can be found on solutions like PowerPoint, or Adobe Illustrator, and will allows you to neatly arrange your tag whatever their size or origin point.

Another important improvement is the long awaited support for Text. You can now align Text along with Tag, using the same command.

While I was at it, I also add support for Keynote tag, Room Tag and Space Tag, basically every tag. The Area Tag is still missing, but can be expected for the next version.

However, this support came at a cost, and I have to drop the support for Revit 2015 and prior. So, if you are still using this version, you will have to keep the old Align plugin.

There is also a handful of small UI improvement that I hope will help you.

Aligned tags are now kept selected after running the command so you can align them in another direction right away.

Your Align commands are also one click closer to you! The interface have been artfully arranged in a new tab to keep every icon directly accessible in the ribbon.

icons1

Under the hood, I have rewrote a large part of the code to support more types of annotation elements, and I hope to be able to use this new framework for more complex manipulations, including in the Arrange Tags function.

Of course, Align Tag is still open source, the entire code can be found on Bitbucket.

This plug-in is already available on the Autodesk App Store. If you like it, don’t hesitate to write a nice comment or add a few stars, it always means so much to me!

Bridge design

One of my colleague is currently working on bridge design with Revit. I have to admit, my first reaction was more like “Revit is not fit for bridge modeling, period”. But after some thought, I found Revit to be a pretty interesting solution to design these kind of infrastructures.

The main issue is that even a simple bridge has a rather complex geometry, with a double-curved alignment and potentially a variable cross section. There is various possibilities to create this kind of geometry in Revit, I will present only one of them here.

This entire article is mostly inspired by the work of Matthias Stark, from Autodesk, and its great AU 2015 class.

The alignment

The first issue we ran into while designing our bridge is the inability for Revit to create a real double-curved, 3D curve.
This is why I create my alignment in Rhino, and use Grasshopper to create a list of X, Y and Z coordinates that define points along my alignment. Another solution is presented by Matthias Stark in his class, where he is using AutoCAD Civil 3D to export the coordinates of the alignment in an Excel spreadsheet.

Once I have all my coordinates in an Excel file, I use a simple definition in Dynamo to create a series of reference points in a Mass family, and use these points to create a curve representing my alignment.

Alignement

I also make sure that units in my Revit mass family are consistent with the unit of my alignment coordinates points.

The cross section

To create the cross section shape of my bridge, I use an adaptive family with a single adaptive point, which will be placed on our alignment.

The keep our cross section properly aligned with our bridge axe, I use the “Orient to” parameter of the adaptive point. By setting it to “Global (z) the Host (xy)”, I make sure than the X and Y axes (Red and Green) will follow my alignment, while the Z axe will stay vertical.

axesI make a few try before getting it right, but I was finally able to properly align my adaptive component with the divided path. Since the X (Red) axis will be tangent to the alignment, I had to draw my cross section in the “Center (Left/Right)” plane of the adaptive family.

adaptiveFamily

Modeling

The rest of the modeling is pretty straightforward. After placing the first adaptive component on a divided path based on our alignment, just select Repeat to place one on every division point, then decompose the Repeat pattern and create a form.

repeat

form

To create the cavity inside the bridge deck, I use the same divided path to place two cavity profiles (right and left) and create two void forms to cut into the bridge deck.

voidForms

Section View

The main issue with this mass family is around dimensions. If you try to add dimensions directly on the Mass family in a section view, these dimensions will be anchored on the wrong point.

firstSection

To be able to create section view anyway, I am using the adaptive component loaded in the Mass family. I make it visible in the project and draw a detail line along one of them. This detail line allows me to draw a section view perfectly aligned with my adaptive component

sectionView

Since my section is perfectly aligned with my profile, it appears in the view and can be used as a reference for the dimensions. I temporary hide my mass family, place the necessary dimensions and show again the mass.

With this workaround, I was able to create a simple section view, with the proper dimensions.

section

Matthias Stark also present in his class an entire detailing process using Dynamo, and that I still have to explore this part. But his approach to bridge modeling allows me to create a great first draft, and I will keep on digging this solution.

Measuring ceiling heights

I recently have to measure the actual headroom of every room in an architectural model, and copy this value in a room parameter.

Instead of checking manually every room, I create a small Dynamo definition, based on the most underrated node in Dynamo, Raybounce.

The Raybounce.ByOriginDirection is basically a laser rangefinder for Dynamo. It works with an origin point and a direction, and give in return the first intersecting element, along with the point of intersection. It is pretty powerful, and its uses range from basic measurements to advanced Line Of Sight Analysis.

UsingRaybounce

Using DynamoMEP, I retrieve every room in the model, and create a grid of points in each of them. These points are arbitrary spaced 50 cm apart, and serve as origin points for my Raybounce node.

RetriveRooms

Furthermore, in order to avoid that my laser beams hit the floor, I move my origin points 1 cm above the floor level.

MoveOriginPoints

The Raybounce.ByOriginDirection use these points, a Z vector as a direction and a 3D view. Since only elements visible in this view will be detected, I hide doors and stairs to remove interferences with these elements.

RayBounce

Along with the intersection point, the Raybounce.ByOriginDirection return the origin point that I filter out with a boolean mask.

FilterPoints

Points

I also make use of the List.Map node to perform any kind of operation (Flatten, Sort …) on the sublist containing the points while keeping them grouped by lists corresponding to the original rooms.

ListMap

I finally calculate the headroom height, and retrieve the shortest one for each room. I pass this value to the Limit Offset parameter of the corresponding room.

CalculateHeadRoom

Initially, every room’s Limit Offset is 2m.

Before

After running the Dynamo script, every Limit Offset is updated to reflect the actual minimum headroom in each room. Since we have a sloped roof, the minimum headroom is not necessarily the ceiling, but can be the lower part of the roof.

After

Using the Raybounce node can be quite challenging, especially when it comes to sorting the resulting points, but it is totally worth the effort. You will find here the Dynamo definition, feel free to use it for your own project.

This was also the occasion for me to update DynamoMEP for Dynamo 1.0, and add a Grid function to create a nice array of point in a Room or a Space. As usual, you will find these updates in the Dynamo Package Manager.

Wall Openings (again)

I am kind of obsessed with wall openings. The entire process of asking a structural engineer for holes in its beloved wall to let ducts and pipes goes through has always been a rather frustrating experience.

After my first article about a semi-automated way for placing an opening family, here is my latest attempt at creating the perfect opening family.

A good opening family must have the following features:

  • hosted on a wall, a slab or a beam
  • visible in a 3D view
  • fully parametric
  • schedulable
  • sharable in its own model
  • a nice 2D representation

Lets explore these features.

To host them, but still keep the ability to share them in their own model, I use the Generic Model Face Base family template to create my opening family. This template allows me place my opening on any wall, slab or beam, even if they are in a linked model.

In this Generic Model, I create the Opening subcategory, where I will place every element of my opening. This will allow me to fine tune the display of my openings in my model.

I create a bunch of reference planes, and drive them with three shared parameters, Width, Height and Depth. These reference planes help me constrain the Void Form that will cut the host. This void form will create an actual hole in the wall or slab, and will allow me to perform accurate clash detections after integrating these openings.

To be able to see my opening in a 3D view, I draw some Model Lines to outline the general shape of the opening, and place them in the “Opening” subcategory. These Model Lines are only visible in 3D.

3D View

The 2D representation is a pretty complex subject, and I have yet to find the perfect solution. After some experiences with Model lines, I have switched to annotations elements. These annotations elements are drawn in two nested families, one for the projection symbol, the other for the cut symbol.

These annotation families are drawn in a Generic Model, with the “Opening” subcategory, in order to follow the same graphical rules than the main family.

I also use Masked Regions to draw filled patterns, and use the Generic Model Override in a plan view to fill them with black. I am not entirely satisfied with this solution, but the workaround involve Detail Items, and I don’t want to deal with two different categories.

PlanSection 1

Section 2

To display the elevation of my opening family in a tag, or a schedule, I create two shared parameter, Top Elevation and Bottom Elevation.

As I was searching for a solution to calculate the elevation, I notice a feature I wasn’t aware of, the “Schedule Level”, present since at least Revit 2015, that allow us to define a reference level. Revit use it to automatically calculate the corresponding elevation. Since this elevation cannot be used directly in a schedule or a tag, I use a Dynamo definition to update elevation values in my shared parameters. This Dynamo definition perform some simple calculation to retrieve Top and Bottom elevations, and send these values in the corresponding shared parameter.

Dynamo

My work with wall openings is far from complete, and subjects like sharing these openings, and managing their modifications are still pending. You will find here the different families, models and Dynamo definition used in this article, feel free to use or improve on them.